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Handbook of Social Choice and Welfare. Volume 1

Формат:      Страниц 680
     твердый переплет
12291 руб
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The Handbook of Social Choice and Welfare presents, in two volumes, essays on past and on-going work in social choice theory and welfare economics. In Part 2 (Voting Schemes and Mechanisms), the operation and performance of voting schemes and cost-sharing mechanisms are examined axiomatically, and some aspects of the modern theory of incentives and mechanism design are expounded and surveyed. In Part 1 (Arrovian Impossibility Theorems), various aspects of Arrovian general impossibility theorems, illustrated by the simple majority cycle first identified by Condorcet, are expounded and evaluated. In order to place these broad issues (as well as further issues to be discussed in the second volume of the Handbook) in perspective, Kotaro Suzumura has written an extensive introduction, discussing the historical background of social choice theory, the vistas opened by Arrow' s Social Choice and Individual Values, the famous "socialist planning" controversy, and the theoretical and practical significance of social choice theory. The primary purpose of this Handbook is to provide an accessible introduction to the current state of the art in social choice theory and welfare economics. The expounded theory has a strong and constructive message for pursuing human well-being and facilitating collective decision-making. In Part 3 (structure of social choice rules), the positional rules of collective decision-making (the origin of which can be traced back to a seminal proposal by Borda), the game-theoretic aspects of voting in committees, and the implications of making use of interpersonal comparisons of welfare (with or without cardinal measurability) are expounded, and the status of utilitarianism as a theory of justice is critically examined. It also provides a critical survey of the work on different escape routes from impossibility results of this kind. The first volume consists of four parts. It also provides an analytical survey of the foundations of measurement of inequality and poverty.
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Нобелевские лауреаты по экономике (на 23 человека)...
Докторская диссертация Эрроу под названием «Социальный выбор и индивидуальные ценности» ("Social Choice a d I dividual Values") была опубликована в 1951 г. В ней, основываясь на предыдущих работах Пола Сэмюэлсона и экономиста из Гарварда Абрама Бергсона, Э. сделал попытку установить условия (если таковые существуют), при которых групповые решения могут быть выведены рациональным или демократическим путем из индивидуальных предпочтений. Э. считал, что демократическая «социальная функция благосостояния», осуществляющая связь между индивидуальными предпочтениями и социальным выбором, должна соответствовать четырем требованиям: переходности (если социальный выбор А предпочтительнее, чем выбор Б, а выбор Б – выбора В, то выбор А предпочтительнее, чем выбор В); эффективности Парето (альтернативное решение не может быть выбрано, если при этом существует другая реализуемая альтернатива, улучшающая жизнь некоторым членам общества и никому не ухудшающая); отсутствию диктатуры (социальный выбор не делается одним человеком); независимости посторонних альтернатив (выбор между А и Б остается неизменным, если вводится третий, логически допустимый, но неосуществимый вариант В). Э. доказал, что четыре условия находятся в противоречии; таким образом, ни одна социальная схема благосостояния не может соответствовать всем требованиям одновременно.

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