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Наименование:

The Creation of States in International Law

Формат:      Страниц 942
     твердый переплет
Автор:
Crawford J.    
Издательство:
Oxford University Press    
Год:2006
Цена:
5923 руб
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The remarkable increase in the number of States in the 20th century did not abate in the twenty five years following publication of James Crawford' s landmark study, which was awarded the American Society of International Law Prize for Creative Scholarship in 1981. The independence of many small territories comprising the ' residue' of the European colonial empires alone accounts for a major increase in States since 1979; while the disintegration of Yugoslavia and the USSR in the early 1990s further augmented the ranks. With these developments, the practice of States and international organizations has developed by substantial measure in respect of self-determination, secession, succession, recognition, de-colonization, and several other fields. Addressing such questions as the unification of Germany, the status of Israel and Palestine, and the continuing pressure from non-State groups to attain statehood, even, in cases like Chechnya or Tibet, against the presumptive rights of existing States, James Crawford discusses the relation between statehood and recognition as it has developed since the eighteenth century. The criteria for statehood and the effect on those criteria of evolving standards of democracy and human rights; their application in international organizations and between States; the creation of States by devolution or recession, by international disposition of major powers or international organizations and through institutions established for Mandated, Trust, and Non-Self-Governing Territories, are also discussed. Apart from the general argument of the normative significance of the legal concept of ' State' , and the analysis of the numerous specific cases, this new edition of a landmark book provides a full and up-to-date account of the general development which has led to the birth of so many new States. New to this edition - Kosovo, Bosnia and other instances of the exercise of international dispositive powers - The unification of Germany and developments in the other ' divided States' - The final phases of decolonization, including the completion of the work of the UN Trusteeship Council - Trends in federalism and devolution; universalization of membership in the United Nations and the problem of the ' bureaucratization' of statehood - Recent disputes concerning secession, such as Quebec and Chechnya; and new practice respecting continuity and succession, especially in connection with the disintegration of Yugoslavia and the USSR - Updated sections on State practice and case law As much as was ever the case in 1979 when the first edition of The Creation of States in International Law published, in the 21st century problems of territorial status and statehood are likely to continue to be a focal point of international disputes. As Rhodesia, Namibia, the South African Homelands and Taiwan then were subjects of acute concern, today governments, international organizations, and other institutions are seized of such matters as the membership of Cyprus in the European Union, application of the Geneva Conventions to Afghanistan, a final settlement for Kosovo, and, still, relations between China and Taiwan.
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Конституция - основной закон государства
Рассуждая о судебной власти, А. Гамильтон писал: “Собственная задача суда заключается в толковании права. По сути своей конституция — это фундаментальное право (fu dume al law), и судьи должны рассматривать ее именно как таковое. Следовательно, они обязаны устанавливать ее смысл точно так же, как они устанавливают смысл любых правовых актов, изданных законодательной властью. Если же между законодательными актами существует непреодолимое противоречие, то предпочтение должен получать тот закон, который обладает высшей юридической силой и значимостью более высокого уровня”. Эти воззрения А Гамильтона были отнюдь не новы для своего времени и опирались на практику американских судов колониального периода, продолжавшую линию судьи Коука. Через 15 лет после выступления Л. Гамильтона Верховный суд США использовал такие рассуждения для аргументации зна менитого решения по делу Marbury v. Madiso . В частности, судья Джон Маршалл заявил: “Это положение слишком очевидно, чтобы можно было его оспаривать: либо конституция подавляет любой законодательный акт, который ей противоречит, либо простой акт законодательства может изменить конституцию. Третьего не дано. Либо конституция — это право наивысшего ранга (Superior paramou law), которое нельзя изменить обычным законодательством, либо она стоит на одном уровне с обычными законами и наравне с другими актами может быть изменена в случае принятия соответствующего закона.


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