From the astonishing Aztec capital of Tenochtitlá n, which had running water, immaculately clean streets, and was larger than any contemporary European city, to the Mexican corn that was so carefully created in a specialized breeding process that it has been called man’s first feat of genetic engineering, Indians were not living lightly on the land but were landscaping and manipulating their world in ways that we are only now beginning to understand. Challenging and surprising, this a transformative new look at a rich and fascinating world we only thought we knew. Contrary to what so many Americans learn in school, the pre-Columbian Indians were not sparsely settled in a pristine wilderness; rather, there were huge numbers of Indians who actively molded and influenced the land around them. In this groundbreaking work of science, history, and archaeology, Charles C. Mann radically alters our understanding of the Americas before the arrival of Columbus in 1492.
1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus
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Charles C. M.
Random House USA
Special fields of psychology
Ma y of he major problems of co cer o co emporary social psychology were recog ized as problems by social philosophers lo g before psychological ques io s were joi ed o scie ific me hod. he ques io s posed by Aris o le, he I alia philosopher iccol Machiavelli, he E glish philosopher homas Hobbes, a d o hers hroughou his ory are s ill asked, i al ered form, i he work of prese -day social psychologis s. he more rece his ory of social psychology begi s wi h he publica io i 1908 of wo ex books—each havi g he erm social psychology i i s i le— ha exami e he impac of socie y o he developme a d behavior of i dividuals. O e of hese was wri e by he Bri ish psychologis William McDougall, a d he o her by he America sociologis Edward Alswor h Ross. McDougall framed a co roversial heory of huma i s i c s, co ceived of as broad, purposive e de cies emergi g from he evolu io ary process. Ross, o he o her ha d, was co cer ed wi h he ra smissio of social behavior from perso o perso , such as he i flue ce of o e perso ’s emo io s o a o her’s i a crowd, or he followi g of fads a d fashio s.