This book looks at some acoustic properties of sounds where this difference is reflected. But conversation mode, as opposed to the other two speaking styles, has differences that are reflected principally in two acoustic correlates, the burst portion of the stop (including VOT duration and amplitude) and the presence of some type of voicing within the closure. The four acoustic cues observed were the duration of the closure portion of the stop; the duration of its Voice Onset Time (VOT); the presence or absence of any voicing during the closure portion and during the VOT portion; and the amplitude level of the burst. Why does spontaneous speech in any language sound so different from read speech? For this project, Spanish voiceless stops were studied in three different speaking modes: conversation, sentence reading and text reading, in two native speakers from Spain. The results show that voiceless stops in any type of speech show similar coarticulatory influences.
An acoustic study of Spanish voiceless stops. Differences in three speaking styles: conversation, sentence and read text
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Книга по Требованию
Система HLA и инфекционные заболевания
Антигены I класса, впервые найденные на лейкоцитах (отсюда термин HLA), экспрессируются (синтезируются и выводятся на клеточную поверхность) почти во всех тканях (продукт четвертого локуса I класса, HLA-G, экспрессируется только в трофобласте). Молекулы I класса играют важную роль при распознавании антигена цитотоксическими -клетками (CD8). Молекулы II класса кодируются тремя или более генными локусами (DR, DP и DQ). HLA-DR антигены известны также как Ia антигены по аналогии с антигенами иммунного ответа у мышей. В последнее время особое внимание исследователей привлекает область HLA-D, так как, по-видимому, именно эта область включает гены иммунного ответа человека (IR - гены), и, возможно, супрессивный ген (IS- ген). В 6 хромосоме между генами I и II классов находятся гены, кодирующие молекулы III класса (которые включают факторы комплемента 2, 4a и 4b) и цитокины F Reily R.J., Pollac M.S. e al. Use of HLA ge o ipicaly differe do ors i bo e marrow ra spla a io - ra spla . Proc., 1979, vol. 11, №1, p.219-224 8.Тананов А.Т. HLA и болезни крови.
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