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Дачные хитрости. Сезонный календарь работ в саду и огороде

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Thermoregulation and Resource Management in Honeybees (Apis mellifera). The Distribution of Resources via Trophallaxis and its Impact on the Heating Performance in Western Honeybee Colonies

Формат:      Страниц 188
     мягкая обложка
Автор:
Rebecca B.    
Издательство:
Книга по Требованию    
Год:2009
Цена:
3621 руб
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In a honeybee colony, the adjustment of labor is expected to be highly adaptive. The ecological success of social insects is largely based on the complex organization of their colonies. Because biotic and abiotic factors like temperature, brood rearing conditions and nectar availability strongly fluctuate, the honey resources which are shared between all members are of crucial importance for the colony' s survival. The questions posed are whether there is a performance-related reward system, what controls individual differences in performance, and how such systems might have evolved. This work focuses on the activity of the antennae at initiation of a feeding contact, impact of sugar and water content of food to the heating performance, behavioral differences between donors and recipients of a trophallactic contact, regulation of the trophallactic activity on the brood comb, and possible evolution of the performance related reward system which triggers the feeding and heating activity. The various methods used for fielding the questions in this thesis reach from classical behavioral ecology, behavioral physiology, neurobiology, and theoretical approaches.
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Пространственная ориентация живых организмов посредством зрительной сенсорной...
Проксимальный конец рабдома, представляющий собой оптический волновод обычно закрыт «оптической пробкой» (Грибакин, 1967), состоящей из утолщений интерретинулярных тяжей, заполненных гранулами экранирующего пигмента. Такая «пробка», очевидно, препятствует проникновению света в более высокие отделы зрительного тракта, где свет (и в особенности ультра­фиолетовое излучение) может вызывать нарушение работы клеток опти­ческих центров. В Рис. 6. Ориентация микровилл рабдомеров у различных видов насе­комых. (Грибакин, 1969). 1 — пчела Apis mellifera; 2 — стрекоза A ax Ju ius; 3 — кузнечик Dissoseria; 4 — шелкопряд Bombyx mori; 5 — тро­пическая бабочка Epargyreus; 6 — тро­пическая бабочка Erubus odora; 7 — мухи — Musca, Lucilia, Drosophila, Calliphora. настоящее время ведутся дискуссии о том, что является функциональ­ной единицей сложного глаза – омматидий или отдельная ретинулярная клетка (см., например: Goldsmi h, 1964). В пользу второго предположения говорит тот факт, что клетки сложного глаза различаются не только по спектральной чувствительности и реакции на положение плоскости поля­ризации падающего света (Goldsmi h, 1964; Мазохин-Поршняков, 1965; Shaw, 1966, 1967), но и по своим морфологическим характеристикам (рис. 6). Так, например, из электронных микрофотографий Фернандес-Морана (Fer a dez-Mora , 1958) видно, что ретинула суперпозиционного (или скотопического) глаза ночной тропической бабочки Erebus odora содержит семь рабдомеров, один из которых резко отличается от остальных зна­чительно большей площадью поперечного сечения.


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Молочный гриб можно использовать для похудения, восстановления микрофлоры, очищения организмаМолочный гриб можно использовать для похудения, восстановления микрофлоры, очищения организма

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