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Diurnal to annual variability of the lower atmospheric layers in the West African monsoon system: A comprehensive view by remote sensing observations Remote sensing observations of the West African monsoon.

Формат:      Страниц 124
     мягкая обложка
Автор:
Bernhard P.G.    
Издательство:
Книга по Требованию    
Год:2010
Цена:
3215 руб
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During the past few years, intensive atmospheric observations were performed in the framework of the international project "African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses" (AMMA) in order to obtain high-quality data and to improve the process understanding. Weather and climate in West Africa are determined by the pronounced contrast between tropical, moist air masses over the Gulf of Guinea and the dry desert climate over the Sahara. This work gathered and analyzed remote sensing observations which were performed during the AMMA field campaigns, giving new insight into diurnal and annual cycles of atmospheric parameters, such as water vapor, temperature profiles, cloud cover, or wind with a temporal resolution never reached before. This contrast results in an atmospheric circulation system which is called "West African monsoon". In the past, the knowledge about the factors that control the monsoon and its strength was limited due to the small number of high-quality observations. Therefore, little is known about the reasons for the significant decline of annual rainfall over the Sahel area during the past 40 years which represents the most pronounced climatic signal worldwide.
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Если кадр передан успешно (коллизий нет), он сообщает об этом LLS-подуровню. Если обнаружена коллизия, он делает несколько повторных попыток передачи, и если передача так и не удалась, сообщает LLS-уровню. На приемной стороне MAC- уровень принимает кадр, проверяет его на отсутствие ошибок и, освободив его от служебной информации, передает на LLS. 1. Физический уровень (physical layer) – нижний уровень, обеспечивающий физическое кодирование бит кадра в электрические сигналы и передачу их по линиям связи. Определяет тип кабелей и разъемов, назначение контактов и формат физических сигналов. Примеры спецификаций физического уровня: o EIA ( IA-232-D) – 25-штырьковый разъем и протокол последовательной синхронной/асинхронной связи; o IEEE 802.3, определяющий разновидности I er e (10 Мбит/с). Здесь физический уровень делится еще на 4 подуровня: а)PLS(Physical Layer Sig ali g) – сигналы для трансиверного кабеля; б)AUI(A achme U i I erface) – спецификации трансиверного кабеля (интерфейс AUI); в)PMA (Physical Medium A achme ) – функции трансивера; г)MDI (Medium Depe de I erface) – спецификации подключения трансивера к конкретному типу кабеля.


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