Several countries have criminalized intentional and/or reckless transmission of/exposure to HIV in consensual sex. The defendant is tortiously liable only when there is infection (exposure is not sufficient). Consensual sexual relationships result in inefficiencies attributed to information asymmetry. Informed consent (not use of condoms) should be a defence. There is no agreement either among legal commentators on what is the ‘best law’. Differences among legal systems are observed on: whether exposure is enough or actual infection is required; what kinds of sexual intercourse are criminalized; whether disclosure is an affirmative defence or whether non-disclosure is a constitutive element of the crime; whether specific intent, in addition to knowledge of one’s HIV-positive status, needs to be established by the prosecution; and whether use of condoms is an affirmative defence. Efficiency requires regulation of consensual relationships be left mainly to tort law. This is characterized by a sex market wherein the participants are mainly HIV-positive. Yet, criminal law is not the optimal instrument to deal with the problem.
A Comparative Law and Economics Approach to the Role of Criminal Law Consensual Sex and HIV/AIDS.
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Книга по Требованию
Массажер для ног "Кочка". Снимает усталость ног, является эффективной профилактикой плоскостопии, улучшает общие самочувствие, снимает различные боли, а также341 рубРаздел: Массажеры
Шпаргалка по международному частному праву...
Это lex causae Закон, с которым данное правоотношение наиболее тесно связано Law of he Co rac ; Proper Law of he Co rac . Закон, с которым данное правоотношение наиболее тесно связано - коллизионная привязка, означающая выбор права путем толкования дог-ра и всех относящихся к нему обстоятельств. Эта коллизионная привязка используется для решения коллизионных вопросов в сфере дог-рных обязательств. 32.Коллизионная привязка «Закон места совершения действия». Это lex loci ac us Закон места совершения акта лат.Lex loci ac us Закон места совершения акта - коллизионная привязка, означающая применение права того гос-ва, на территории которого совершен гражданско-правовой акт. В зависимости от вида гражданско-правовых актов закон места совершения акта конкретизируется в виде закона места совершения дог-ра, закона места исполнения обязательства и закона места причинения вреда. Международное частное право Закон места совершения дог-ра лат.Lex loci co rac us Закон места совершения дог-ра - коллизионная привязка, означающая применение права того гос-ва, где заключен дог-р.
|Epidemiological and Anthropological Perspectives SEX WORK AND RISK TO HIV/AIDS IN UGANDA. Книга по Требованию SIMON S. |
Given the central role of sex workers as high frequency transmitters in the epidemiology of STD and HIV/AIDS, these groups need priority focus in efforts to control sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS.
|SEXUAL AND REPRODUCTIVE ISSUES AMONG THE AKAMBA OF KENYA. IMPLICATION FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF CHILDBEARING AND STD AND HIV/AIDS Книга по Требованию Harrison M. |
The destabilisation of traditional African social institutions that provided support and maintained a balance between individuals, family and community has impacted negatively on reproductive health of both men and women.
|The HIV/AIDS orphan crisis. A situational analysis of the livelihoods of child-headed households in Uganda Книга по Требованию Faustine N. |
The analysis reveals that much as NGOs have done a lot to assist child headed households, the impact of their programmes on the livelihoods of these children is minimal contrary to what is portrayed in their reports.
|A CROSS-CULTURAL COMPARISON INTERPERSONAL EXCHANGES ABOUT HIV-AIDS THROUGH DIFFERENT MEDIA. Книга по Требованию GUENDALINA G. |
What role does the interpersonal exchange play in mediating the efficacy of a preventive campaign?
|Developing a scale for measuring perceived barriers to behavioral change towards HIV/AIDS prevention A test construction. Книга по Требованию Tilahun N. |
The tool is intended to measure those behavioral change barriers among university students in developing countries.
|HIV/AIDS in Rural Botswana:Poverty, Gender Inequality, Marginalization, and Stigma Книга по Требованию |
This book should be useful to policy analysts and development workers in the HIV/AIDS field, especially those studying and working with minority groups.
|HIV/AIDS and Intimate Partner Violence. An exploration of the relationship between dual public health concerns in African-American women Книга по Требованию Lauren J. |
In the United States however, further exploration is necessary to determine the relationship between Intimate Partner Violence and HIV.
|The AIDS Pandemic in Uganda. Social Capital and the Role of NGOs in Alleviating the Impact of HIV/AIDS Книга по Требованию ROBERTS M. |
Fighting HIV/AIDS goes beyond the medical profession to include the social approaches;3.
|A Case of Poor Urban Women in Bahir Dar Town, Ethiopia Microfinance: A Strategy to Prevent the Spread of HIV/AIDS. Книга по Требованию Getahun F.K. |
Except the productive and active poor, there is no mechanism used by ACSI to make people living with HIV/AIDS beneficiaries of the microfinance products.
|Psychosocial Impact of HIV/AIDS on Orphaned and Affected children. Psychosocial Social Impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/AIDS on Orphaned and Affected children Книга по Требованию Grace A. |
The study will be useful to policy makers and other organizations involved with orphans and vulnerable children.
|BEING A WOMAN AND LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS. CHALLENGES AND COPING STRATEGIES OF WOMEN LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS IN ADDIS ABABA Книга по Требованию Nebyu M. |
The increased vulnerability of women to the virus has in turn produced a relatively large number of women living with HIV/AIDS-women constitute the majority of people living with HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia.
|CORRELATES OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR AMONG BARMAIDS IN MOROGORO MUNICIPALITY. Barmaids are among the high-risk group of infection of sexually transmitted diseases including HIV/AIDS Книга по Требованию Thecla M. |
Barmaids are among the high-risk group of infection of sexually transmitted diseases including HIV/AIDS.
|HIV/AIDS in Burma Книга по Требованию Waylon C.T. |
Burma (ranked 51 out of 166 countries) has one of Asia' s highest adult HIV prevalence rates, following Cambodia and Thailand. An estimated 20,000 (range of 11,000 to 35,000) die from HIV/AIDS annually. The national government, in 2005, spent USD$137,120 (K150,831,600) on HIV, while international donors (the governments of Norway, the Netherlands, United Kingdom, and Sweden) donated USD$27,711,813 towards HIV programmes in Burma. High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! However, the National AIDS Programme Burma found that 32% of sex workers and 43% of intravenous drug users in Burma have HIV. High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! HIV/AIDS in Burma (or Myanmar), recognised as a disease of concern by the Ministry of Health, is most prevalent among sex workers and intravenous drug users. In 2005, the estimated adult HIV prevalence rate in Burma was 1. 3% (200,000 - 570,000 people), according to UNAIDS, and early indicators show that the epidemic may be waning in the country, although the epidemic continues to expand.
|HIV/AIDS in the People's Republic of China Книга по Требованию Frederic P. M. |
|ARE NATURAL SUPPLEMENTS AN ANSWER TO THE PROBLEM OF HIV/AIDS?. A MATHEMATICAL APPROACH Книга по Требованию GIFT T. |
It is also worth considering using alternative therapies, such as antioxidants, as anti-retroviral therapies are limited for economic reasons and their associated toxicity.
|RISK PERCEPTION OF HIV/AIDS AMONG ADULT POPULATION. THE CASE OF NAZARETH TRACTOR ASSEMBLING FACTORY WORKERS Книга по Требованию Tsegaye A. |
|Mainstreaming HIV/AIDS in development and humanitarian programmes Книга по Требованию Holden S. |
|'In Search of Durable Strategies to HIV Prevention'. Categorical Representation and Analysis of Risk Behavioural Factors Associated with HIV/AIDS in Sub- Saharan Africa Книга по Требованию Frankline A.N. |
HIV/AIDS represents a major bulwark to Africa' s progress. It is hoped that this work would strengthen and re-orient current efforts underway to prevent HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa– and the world. Since its discovery some 25 years ago, the disease has emerged as the most troubling public health hazard in recent memory. This research has proposed a new bottom-up driven preventative strategy for fighting HIV/AIDS, which blends current informative and educative campaigns on HIV/AIDS; empowering young people towards alternative ways of livelihood, while at the same time, caring for the affected in ways that prioritizes dignity, respect and individual empowerment. Although considerable efforts have been put in place to reduce its spread, crucial risk behavioural factors associated with HIV/AIDS have not been sufficiently explored. This work therefore attempts to identify, categorize, analyse and present a holistic picture of the different risk behaviours associated with HIV/AIDS. Recent literature on HIV/AIDS suggests that a complex mix of economic, social, cultural and political factors is driving-up the prevalence of the epidemic in Africa in particular, and the world at large.
|The Spread of HIV/AIDS in Mobile Populations. Modelling, Analysis, Simulation Книга по Требованию Asrul S. |
Some strategies such as how to allocate a limited budget to minimise the number of new HIV cases over a finite time horizon as people move among regions might provide some useful information in controlling the spread of the disease.
|Food, medicine, body and emotions HIV/AIDS Caregiving without ARVs in Lesotho. Книга по Требованию Mokhantso M. |
The book chronicles poignant experiences of family members who provided care for HIV and AIDS patients before antiretroviral drugs were available in the public health sector in Lesotho.