To bridge cultural gaps in business transactions, the authoress developed management guidelines for Japanese and EU companies. An online survey and expert interviews as well as five case studies on top global companies of Japan and their economic and strategic development from times of crisis to renewed success demonstrate in detail the extent of influence of existing cultural differences on strategic thinking and management strategies in business relationships. Global strategies of Japanese companies on the example of the Kyoto-Model, the influence of Keiretsu on the Japanese market and Gemba Kaizen are explained in detail. Culture, strategic thinking and strategic management are not separate thought forms, but are interlaced. Based on general definitions of culture, strategy and their interdependence the authoress goes into detail on the economic, social, historical and cultural background of Japan and the EU. Ancient tradition and globalization interlace in Japan. They must be seen within a context to develop successful national and global strategies in the future and to be able to cooperate with a Japanese or EU business partner.
Effects of Cultural Differences on Strategy in Japan and the EU. Based on Well-Known Japanese Automobile and Consumer Electronics Industry Brands
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Книга по Требованию
Налоги на прибыль (МСФО №12)
Они образуются в связи с разницей между балансовой стоимостью активов и обязательств и их налоговой базой. Под налоговой базой ( ax base) активов и обязательств понимается их стоимость, принимаемая для целей налогообложения. Для каждого вида активов и обязательств определяется такая разница, именуемая временной разницей ( emporary differe ces). Она может быть налогооблагаемой ( axable emporary differe ces), т.е. увеличивающей базу для расчета налога на прибыль в будущих периодах, либо вычитаемой (deduc ible emporary differe ces), т.е. уменьшающей базу для расчета налога на прибыль в будущих периодах. В первом случае в отчетности отражается отложенное налоговое обязательство (deferred ax liabili y), а во втором случае - отложенный налоговый актив (deferred ax asse ). Кроме того, отложенные налоговые активы могут возникать в связи с убытками прошлых периодов, которые принимаются к уменьшению налогооблагаемой базы в будущих периодах. 1. Цель и сфера применения Стандарта. Цель настоящего Стандарта состоит в определении порядка учета налогов на прибыль. Главный вопрос в учете налогов на прибыль состоит в том, как учитывать текущие и будущие налоговые последствия: (a) будущего возмещения (погашения) балансовой стоимости активов (обязательств), которые признаются в балансе компании; (б) сделок и других событий текущего периода, которые признаются в финансовой отчетности компании.
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