This does not only impose welfare costs on the population, but also has important wealth accumulation and portfolio choice consequences. Social Security rules have changed constantly since its creation, generating different outcomes across cohorts, race and gender. Using the history of policy changes, estimates of the potential welfare costs to the US population are presented. A look at the history of social security in the US and Germany provides substantial evidence of policy risk in their pay-as-you-go systems. This book also explore the effects of policy risk on wealth accumulation, both looking at the effects the 1984 social security reform in the US could have had on individuals' wealth accumulation, as well as using aggregate data to estimate the impact of social security wealth and risk on savings. The evidence obtained suggests that there is an important substitution between social security wealth and financial wealth, and that people exposed to larger policy uncertainties accumulate more financial wealth. Results imply that accounting for policy risk greatly improves our understanding of the real effects of retirement programs.
Social Security and Policy Risk. Evidence of its Effects on Welfare Costs and Savings
|Формат:|| Страниц 112|
Книга по Требованию
Сушилка для обуви "Elfe". Сушилка для обуви Elfe предназначена для просушивания обуви в бытовых условиях. Благодаря данной сушилке срок ношения обуви значительно609 рубРаздел: Прочее
политика протекционизма экономики Украины
Родился в польском городе Вроцлаве (прежнем немецком Бреслау). После того как родители переехали в Австралию, Корден закончил Мельбурнский университет. Защитив в 1961 г. докторскую диссертацию по международной экономике, начал карьеру профессора крупнейших университетов мира, в числе которых Мельбурнский известный своими традициями в изучении международной торговле, Австралийский государственный, Оксфордский (Великобритания), Университет Джона Гопкинса, Калифорнийский, Принстонский, Гарвардский (США). В 1977-1980 гг. Корден избирался президентом экономического общества Австралии и Новой Зеландии. В 1986-1988 гг. работал старшим советником МВФ. В числе трудов, которые принесли Кордену известность и признание в научных кругах, - «Теория протекционизма» ( he heory of Pro ec io , 1971), «Торговая политика и экономическое благосостояние» ( rade Policy a d Eco omic Welfare,), «Инфляция, валютные курсы и мировая экономика» (I fla io , Excha ge Ra es a d he World Eco omy,1977), «Протекционизм, рост и торговля». Эти и многие другие его труды составили теоретическую базу анализа международной торговой политики, проводимого в Мировом банке и МВФ. Роль государства в международной торговле.
|Analysis of decision making. Explaining Uganda’s Social Security and Pension Policy Reform Книга по Требованию Gerald K.K. |
In this regard, three processes could be envisaged: a) Institutional, b) Strategic, c) Consensual. These processes may enable us capture patterns through which actors interact, choose, reject and accept policy options. These forms of interaction do not only inform policies, but also determine the nature of established policies. These patterns are not absolute in themselves, but together, they led to the twenty four policy proposals for reforming the social security and pensions sector in Uganda. This work provides powerful insights for public sector reformers, decision making analysts, graduate-level students, social security and pensions organisations, social security and pension reform consultants and scholars, as well as other professionals interested in decision analysis and pension reforms. It analyses decision making and suggests that the mode of interaction between various actors affects the outcome and the nature of policy options. This book departs from traditional decision analysis based on game theory and decision trees and addresses how policy proposals are made in the public arena, with reference to the social security reform process in Uganda.
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The effect of privatization on representative individuals has been quantified for each institution.
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This book has a foreword by Andrew Shepherd, Director, Chronic Poverty Research Centre, UK (www. chronicpoverty. org). This research work, on the basis of secondary data as well as data from sample households from different social groups, has identified the shortfall in the provisioning of social security to the vulnerable section of the population.
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It explored the importance of information security policy in organizations, and employee’s attitudes to compliance with organizations' policies. The research has been divided into four stages. Each stage was developed in light of the results from the previous. The first two stages were conducted in the Sultanate of Oman for the reason to use a population just started out in the information security area. The third stage was conducted in the UK at Glasgow University because employees are somewhat familiar with the idea of information security. The fourth stage takes the findings of the three studies and brings them together to give recommendations about how to formulate a security policy to encourage compliance and therefore reduce security threats. The dissertation focused on human factors by looking at what concerns employees about information security. The study is the first step in trying to highlight effective approaches and strategies that might help organizations to achieve good information security through looking at success factors for the implementation.
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But in the past century, the European political Law assessed the possibility of political Labor on the corporate idea.
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In the 1980s and 1990s, traditional (military-centric, state-centric and objectivist) conceptions of security were challenged by a number of new approaches which stressed, inter alia, a widened security concept, non-military and non-state perspectives, and an emphasis on culture, identity, gender and discourse.
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The definition of a disability category is the result of contextual social processes and interpretations; disability as a social political and administrative category is in turn a result of specific social constructs and based on defined normative premises and cultural interpretations.
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However, successful mainstreaming lies on balancing conflicts among diverse actors in order to promote security for the vulnerable people.
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Arguing that relations are central to peasants' behavior, social constructionism would propose that AIDS fractures social ties, trust, and obligations that sustain peasants' welfare. The embeddedness view, a third conceptual stream, argues that human action involves individual initiative as the neoclassical economic theory envisions but that individuals actions are influenced by (a) the social context as social constructionism proposes and (b) social forces, such as the AIDS epidemic. Peasants' actions to secure their welfare are thus contingent upon individual household initiatives and the collective sharing of resources, goods, and burdens through reciprocity, redistribution, and exchange mechanisms occurring through networks of social ties, trust, and obligations. The embeddedness view integrates the neoclassical economic theory and social constructionism; it explains peasants pursuit of wellbeing more realistically. There is great concern on the impact of AIDS on peasants' food security and future.
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In this study the author has analyse the different schemes and National policies for women and child in India and there effects on society.
|Russian Gas Policy and the EU Energy Security. Tackling problems on the way to closer cooperation for mutual benefit Книга по Требованию Oksana B. |
It aims at defining the evolution of the European Union policies in regards to the energy security and the gas policy of Russia as the main energy supplier to Europe.