Turkey's application to accede to the European Union (previously the European Communities) was made on 14 April 1987. Turkey has been an associate member of the European Union (EU) and its predecessors since 1963. After the ten founding members, Turkey was one of the first countries to become a member of the Council of Europe in 1949, and was also a founding member of the Organisation for Economic Co- operation and Development (OECD) in 196 and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) in 1973. The country has also been an associate member of the Western European Union since 1992, and is a part of the "Western Europe" branch of the Western European and Others Group (WEOG) at the United Nations. Turkey signed a Customs Union agreement with the EU in 1995 and was officially recognised as a candidate for full membership on 12 December 1999, at the Helsinki summit of the European Council. Negotiations were started on 3 October 2005, and the process, should it be in Turkey's favour, is likely to take at least a decade to complete. The membership bid has become a major controversy of the ongoing enlargement of the European Union.
Accession of Turkey to the European Union
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Глобальные сети АТМ
Израильская фирма Hy EX, специализирующаяся на выпуске аппаратуры для сопряжения сетей АТМ с традиционными ЛС, продемонстрировала на выставке CeBI '98 новое устройство доступа Hu 7100. Представители компании именуют этот продукт, как и предыдущую модель 7000, оконечным АТМ - устройством ( e work ermi a io U i ), подчеркивая его отличие от других устройств доступа (A M access devices). Его функции по сравнению с возможностями простейших образцов этой категории оборудования выходят далеко за рамки минимально требуемого преобразования данных из одного формата в другой. Модель 7100 осуществляет также интеллектуальное управление трафиком, обычно возлагаемое на периферийные АТМ - коммутаторы. Корпорация 3Com начинает выпуск двух устройств, с помощью которых пользователи смогут экономично передавать на большие расстояния трафики значительного объема со своих локальных сетей АТМ. Компания представила модели AccessBuilder 9300 и AccessBuilder 9010, реализующие перекачку трафиков локальных сетей (155 Мбит/с) в магистральные каналы со скоростью передачи данных от 1,5 до 6 Мбит/с.
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