Prior to infection, the heartwood is relatively light and pale coloured, however as the infection progresses, the tree produces a dark aromatic resin in response to the attack, which results in a very dense, dark, resin embedded heartwood. In 2004 all Aquilaria species were listed in Appendix II; however, a number of countries have outstanding reservations regarding that listing. Since 1995 Aquilaria malaccensis, the primary source, has been listed in Appendix II (potentially threatened species) by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. One of the reasons for the relative rarity and high cost of agarwood is the depletion of the wild resource. The resin embedded wood is commonly called gaharu, jinko, aloeswood, agarwood, or oud (not to be confused with ' Bakhoor' ) and is valued in many cultures for its distinctive fragrance, and thus is used for incense and perfumes. Agarwood (or just Agar) is a dark resinous heartwood that forms in Aquilaria trees (large evergreens native to southeast Asia) when they become infected with a type of mold.
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