Sociologist Robert Bellah argues that Islam in its seventh-century origins was, for its time and place, "remarkably modern. . . in the high degree of commitment, involvement, and participation expected from the rank-and-file members of the community. " This because, he argues, that Islam emphasized on the equality of all Muslims. Islamic sociology is a discipline of Islamic studies and the social sciences. Dale Eickelman writes that Bellah suggests "the early Islamic community placed a particular value on individuals, as opposed to collective or group responsibility. Leadership positions were open to all. However, there were restraints on the early Muslim community that kept it from exemplifying these principles, primarily from the "stagnant localisms" of tribe and kinship.
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Книга по Требованию
Арабский халифат Работа по «Введению в изучение исламо-мусульманской цивилизации» студента дневного отделения факультета Культурной антропологии и социологии Полетаева Владимира Евгеньевича Министерство культуры Российской Федерации Санкт-Петербургский Государственный Университет Культуры и Искусств Санкт-Петербург 2003 г. he mi is ry of cul ure of Russia Federa io he S .-Pe ersburg S a e U iversi y of Cul ure a d Ar s Work o " o i roduc io i s udy of a Islam civiliza io " o a heme: " Arabia Halifax ", he s ude of day ime bra ch, facul y Cul ural a hropology a d sociology, Pole aev Vladimir Evg. S .-Pe ersburg 2003y. ИСЛАМ (араб., букв. — покорность), монотеистическая религия, одна из мировых религий (наряду с христианством и буддизмом), ее последователи — мусульмане. Возник в Аравии в 7 в. Основатель — Мухаммед. Ислам складывался под значительным влиянием христианства и иудаизма. В результате арабских завоеваний распространился на Ближнем и Ср. Востоке, позднее в некоторых странах Дальнего Востока, Юго-Вост. Азии, Африки. Главные принципы ислама изложены в Коране. Основные догматы — поклонение единому богу — всемогущему Богу-Аллаху и почитание Мухаммеда пророком — посланником Аллаха.
|The Cambridge Illustrated History of the Islamic World Cambridge University Press Robinson |
As well as taking on the issues uppermost in everyone’s minds, such as the role of religious and political fundamentalism, they demonstrate the importance of commerce, literacy and learning, Islamic art, the effects of immigration, exodus, and conquest, and the roots of current crises in the Middle East, Bosnia, and the Gulf.
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In contradiction to the models which question the industrialization processes, theoretical paradigms are presented which highlight integration in the analyses of new concepts of work, such as co- production, the supremacy of the client/user, the evaluation of organizational performances and competence logic.
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Beside the market illiquidity and the diversification issue, the main problem is the inconsistency among the Islamic schools.
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In particular, it is widely interlaced with the spheres of public sector, economics, mass media, philosophical reflection, scientific research work, people' s everyday life and practical social action. In particular, an increasing marketisation and managerialism is characteristic of the contemporary sphere of art. The book on hand critically considers the shift from the modern to the contemporary sphere of art. It suggests that the contemporary sphere of art can be understood as a complex societal and cultural system whose internal system-likeness is on the decrease. At the same time it is vital a and dynamic sub-system of contemporary society, and, as such, it possesses an amazing capacity to renew. Since the 1960s, the Western sphere of art has given up modern aesthetics that held that the sphere of art should be independent of the spheres of economics, cultural industry, politics and practical utility. In contrast to a conception of art such as this, the contemporary sphere of art has firmly become rooted in its societal-cultural environment.
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Finally, in the midst of increased westernization and globalization, how do teachers negotiate the influences of western values on their students and curriculum?
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It might be interesting for every person interested in Islamic finances and Islamic banking, advanced in Islamic finances as well as for the beginner.
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The idea of guardianship as rule was advanced by the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini in a series of lectures in 1970 and now forms the basis of the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists is a post-Age-of- Occultation theory in Shi' a Islam which holds that Islam gives a faqih (Islamic jurist) or fuqaha (jurists) custodianship or guardianship over those in need of it. Ulema supporting the theory disagree over how encompassing custodianship should be. One interpretation - limited Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists - holds that guardianship should be limited to non-litigious matters including religious endowments (Waqf) judicial matters and the property which no specific person is responsible for it. Another - "absolute guardianship of the Islamic Jurists" - maintains that Guardianship should include all issues for which Prophet of Islam and Shi' a Imam have responsibility, including governance of the country.
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