The aim of condensed matter physics is to understand the behavior of these phases by using well-established physical laws, in particular those of quantum mechanics, electromagnetism and statistical mechanics. More exotic condensed phases include the superconducting phase exhibited by certain materials at low temperature, the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases of spins on atomic lattices, and the Bose-Einstein condensate found in certain ultracold atomic systems. In particular, it is concerned with the "condensed" phases that appear whenever the number of constituents in a system is extremely large and the interactions between the constituents are strong. Theoretical condensed matter physics also shares many important concepts and techniques with theoretical particle and nuclear physics. The field has a large overlap with chemistry, materials science, and nanotechnology, and there are close connections with the related fields of atomic physics and biophysics. Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic and microscopic physical properties of matter. By one estimate, one third of all United States physicists identify themselves as condensed matter physicists. The diversity of systems and phenomena available for study makes condensed matter physics by far the largest field of contemporary physics. The most familiar examples of condensed phases are solids and liquids, which arise from the electromagnetic forces between atoms.
Condensed Matter Physics
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Книга по Требованию
Лев Ландау (1908-1968) в 1932 году доказал, что вещество с еще более высокой плотностью может находиться в равновесии с гравитационными силами. Тогда же в Пасадене на самом большом по тем временам телескопе в мире работал выходец из Германии Вальтер Бааде. Он был, несомненно, одним из лучших астрономов-наблюдателей нашего столетия. Там же работал и швейцарец Фриц Цвикки, человек столь же напористый, сколь и неистощимый на выдумки. Еще в 1934 году эти два ученых утверждали, что смогут существовать звезды с исключительно высокой плотностью - как предсказывал и Ландау,- звезды, состоящие почти полностью из одних нейтронов. В 1939 году физики Роберт Оппенгеймер и Джордж Волков поместили в американском физическом журнале "Physical Review" статью о нейтронных звездах. Имя одного из авторов этой статьи стало известно во всем мире задолго до того, как астрономы всерьез занялись нейтронными звездами: Оппенгеймер сыграл ведущую роль в создании американской атомной бомбы. Оппенгеймер и Волков доказали, что звездное вещество, в котором электроны и протоны соединились в нейтроны, может удерживаться в виде шара с собственными гравитационными силами.
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