Dopamine is produced in several areas of the brain, including the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that occurs in a wide variety of animals, including both vertebrates and invertebrates. Dopamine is also a neurohormone released by the hypothalamus. Dopamine can be supplied as a medication that acts on the sympathetic nervous system, producing effects such as increased heart rate and blood pressure. To increase the amount of dopamine in the brains of patients with diseases such as Parkinson' s disease and dopa-responsive dystonia, L-DOPA, which is the precursor of dopamine, can be given because it can cross the blood-brain barrier. Its main function as a hormone is to inhibit the release of prolactin from the anterior lobe of the pituitary. However, because dopamine cannot cross the blood-brain barrier, dopamine given as a drug does not directly affect the central nervous system. In the brain, this phenethylamine functions as a neurotransmitter, activating the five types of dopamine receptors—D1, D2, D3, D4, and D5—and their variants.
|Формат:|| Страниц 116|
Книга по Требованию
|Dopamine Dysregulation Syndrome Книга по Требованию Frederic P. M. |
Dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS), sometimes known as hedonistic homeostatic dysregulation in Parkinson' s disease, is a dysfunction of the reward system in subjects with Parkinson' s disease (PD) due to a long exposure to dopamine replacement therapy (DRT).