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The Perverse Incentives of the EU Funds: L. The perverse incentives of the EU Funds for Development: The monitoring Phase under the Law and Economics' lenses

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John P.    
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Being that demonstrated, I propose recommendations following which there will be less space for the existence of a perverse incentive to private appropriation of the EU funds. What have varied were the sources. Our hypothesis in this paper is that if the European Union funds usage is not efficiently monitored, the expected outcome can be perverted leading to wealth destruction. The structural funds or the European funds in general are not the first instrument to promote economic development in the history of Europe. Since the Roman Empire to more recently the Marshall plan and now the EU Funds, vast amounts of funding were given to zones in the need of concrete structural projects.
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Конституция - основной закон государства
Рассуждая о судебной власти, А. Гамильтон писал: “Собственная задача суда заключается в толковании права. По сути своей конституция — это фундаментальное право (fu dume al law), и судьи должны рассматривать ее именно как таковое. Следовательно, они обязаны устанавливать ее смысл точно так же, как они устанавливают смысл любых правовых актов, изданных законодательной властью. Если же между законодательными актами существует непреодолимое противоречие, то предпочтение должен получать тот закон, который обладает высшей юридической силой и значимостью более высокого уровня”. Эти воззрения А Гамильтона были отнюдь не новы для своего времени и опирались на практику американских судов колониального периода, продолжавшую линию судьи Коука. Через 15 лет после выступления Л. Гамильтона Верховный суд США использовал такие рассуждения для аргументации зна менитого решения по делу Marbury v. Madiso . В частности, судья Джон Маршалл заявил: “Это положение слишком очевидно, чтобы можно было его оспаривать: либо конституция подавляет любой законодательный акт, который ей противоречит, либо простой акт законодательства может изменить конституцию. Третьего не дано. Либо конституция — это право наивысшего ранга (Superior paramou law), которое нельзя изменить обычным законодательством, либо она стоит на одном уровне с обычными законами и наравне с другими актами может быть изменена в случае принятия соответствующего закона.

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