These were the key drivers in changing the UK governance of its petroleum resources from a Proprietorial to a non-Proprietorial regime. These presented a change in the type of UK governance of its petroleum resources from Proprietorial to a non-Proprietorial regime. This new type of governance the UK petroleum resources continued to be accommodated under a unique type of mineral ownership, which was called ' the North Sea Model' . This type of minerals ownership grants the concessionaire a mining and economic right but not a mineral right. The results of this thesis show that the UK Government was always the revenue loser because of these tax relaxations. Our tests showed that the 1983 petroleum tax relaxation was not successful in achieving its aims. The UK petroleum fiscal regime was established in 1975. The 1987-88 petroleum tax relaxation was successful in stimulating extra investments in new areas, and in increasing the cash flow of the UK oil industry. The 1993 petroleum tax relaxation left the Government with a very small economic rent from new oil fields. The period 1983-2000 witnessed three petroleum tax relaxations. It accommodates private interests under public control.
The UK Petroleum Fiscal Regime 1980-2000 Exploring the Rationales for the UK Petroleum Tax Relaxations.
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Книга по Требованию
Экономическая основа рационального природопользования...
Для приземного слоя толщиной в 500 метров энергия ветра, превращающаяся в тепло, составляет примерно 82 триллиона киловатт-часов в год. Конечно, всю ее использовать невозможно, в частности, по той причине, что часто поставленные ветряки будут затенять друг друга. В то же время отобранная у ветра энергия, в конечном счете, вновь превратится в тепло. Среднегодовые скорости воздушных потоков на стометровой высоте превышают 7 метров в секунду. Если выйти на высоту в 100 метров, используя подходящую естественную возвышенность, то эффективный ветроагрегат можно ставить практически везде. Если взять только нижний 100-метровый слой и поставить одну установку на 100 квадратных километров, то при установленной мощности около двух миллиардов киловатт можно выработать за год 5 триллионов киловатт-часов, что в 2 раза больше гидроэнергетического потенциала стран СНГ. Рисунок 2. Генерирующие мощности мировой ветроэнергетики в 1980-2000 гг. (МВт) Ветроэнергетика развивается семимильными шагами. Из-за сокращения затрат на производство электричества с помощью энергии ветра, его объемы растут на глазах. С появлением новых ветряных турбин усовершенствованной конструкции расходы на производство электроэнергии за 10 лет снизились с 18 центов за 1 кВт ч до 4 центов в местах, богатых ветроэнергетическими ресурсами В некоторых регионах электроэнергия, создаваемая силой ветра, уже сегодня стоит меньше, чем при сжигании нефти и газа.
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