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Interdependence between Energy and Foreign Policy. Russia and Turkey As Case Studies

Формат:      Страниц 164
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Remziye Y.    
Книга по Требованию    
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Energy is perceived as a way to make national foreign policy goals achieved. It is currently being accused of building energy leverage over the importing and transit countries in order to regain power and reputation which it lost since the Cold War. Russia is a very important actor in the field of energy. Turkey is considered that it uses its geostrategic position as leverage to be a hegemony player in the region. Therefore, energy relations between countries in the world take place at a larger context rather than just an energy issue. While the approach of using energy as a political tool may seem successful in short time, it has been considered as very risky for long term period. Since energy has an impact on economy and security of countries, there is a direct link between energy and foreign policy. Analyzing the reasons behind the 1973 oil embargo clearly shows how energy can be used as a political weapon to achieve foreign policy goals. Turkey is a crucial energy transit country because it is so close to large energy supplier and consumer countries.
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Организационный механизм разработки и осуществления государственной инновационной политики....
Напротив, для достижения наибольшей эффективности их деятельности их необходимо связать (как институционально, так и с точки зрения мер проводимой политики) с дополнительными видами деятельности с тем, чтобы преодолеть инновационный барьер (см. Рекомендацию 10А, приведенную выше). Также необходимо создать инкубаторы для “взращивания” и развития перспективных малых и средних предприятий в сфере высоких технологий. Литература и источники: 1Подробнее см. доклады по Венгрии, Финляндии, Южной Корее и Израилю, сделанные на семинаре: Helsi ki Semi ar o I ova io Policy a d he Valorisa io of Scie ce a d ech ology i Russia, March 1-2, 2001 ("Инновационная политика и валоризация (повышение ценности) науки и технологии в России", состоявшегося в г. Хельсинки 1-2 марта 2001 г.), которые размещены на сайте: 2"Role of he S a e i Crea i g a Favorable I ova io Clima e i Russia," Backgrou d Repor Prepared by he Mi is ry of I dus ry Scie ce a d ech ology for he Helsi ki Semi ar o I ova io Policy a d he Valorisa io of Scie ce a d ech ology i Russia, March 1-2, 2001, Paragraph 3. ("Роль государства в создании благоприятного инновационного климата в России" - доклад, подготовленный Министерством промышленности, науки и технологий для семинара "Инновационная политика и валоризация науки и технологии в России", состоявшегося в г.

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