Iconoclasm, Greek for "image-breaking", is the deliberate destruction within a culture of the culture' s own religious icons and other symbols or monuments, usually for religious or political motives. People who engage in or support iconoclasm are called iconoclasts, a term that has come to be applied figuratively to any person who breaks or disdains established dogmata or conventions. Conversely, people who revere or venerate religious images are derisively called "iconolaters". They are normally known as "iconodules", or "iconophiles". The "Second Iconoclasm" was between 814 and 842. The "First Iconoclasm", as it is sometimes called, lasted between about 730 and 787, when a change on the throne reversed the ban. The Byzantine Iconoclasm refers to two periods in the history of the Byzantine Empire when Emperors, backed by imperially-appointed leaders and councils of the Greek Orthodox Church (which at the time was still a part of the Catholic Church) imposed a ban on religious images or icons. Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online.
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|Byzantine Art Parkstone international Bayet C. |
Today, Italy, Northern Africa, and the Near East preserve the vestiges of this sophisticated artistic tradition, with all of its mystical and luminous beauty.
|Byzantine Coinage Книга по Требованию Frederic P. M. |
Byzantine currency, money used in the Eastern Roman Empire after the fall of the West, consisted of mainly two types of coins: the gold solidus and a variety of clearly valued bronze coins.
|Byzantine-Sassanid War of 602–628 Книга по Требованию Frederic P. M. |
The previous war had ended after Emperor Maurice had helped the Sassanian king Khosrau II regain his throne.
|Byzantine Civil War of 1341–1347 Книга по Требованию Frederic P. M. |
|Rus'–Byzantine War (860) Книга по Требованию Lambert M. S. |
It is known from Byzantine sources that the Rus' caught Constantinople unprepared, when the empire was occupied by the ongoing Byzantine-Arab Wars and unable to deal with the Rus' threat. After pillaging the suburbs of the Byzantine capital, the Rus' retreated, although the nature of this withdrawal, and indeed which side was victorious, is subject to debate. This event gave rise to a later Orthodox Christian tradition, which ascribed the deliverance of Constantinople to a miraculous intervention by the Theotokos. Accounts vary regarding the events that took place, with discrepancies between contemporary and later sources, and the exact outcome is unknown. High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! The Rus' -Byzantine War of 860 was the only major military expedition of the Rus' Khaganate recorded in Byzantine and Western European sources.
|History of the Byzantine Empire from Dccxvi to Mlvii. Книга по Требованию Finlay G. |
|Byzantine and Romanesque Architecture, Volume 1 Книга по Требованию Jackson T.G. |
|Raoul (Byzantine Family) Книга по Требованию Lambert M. S. |
The first member of the family appears in 1108, when "Humbert, son of Graoul [Raoul]", a councillor of Emperor Alexios I Komnenos (r. 1081–1118) was part of the Byzantine delegation that signed the Treaty of Devol.
|Byzantine Calendar Книга по Требованию Frederic P. M. |
|Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture Yale University Press Krautheimer R. |
|Early Christian and Byzantine Art Art & Ideas Phaidon Press Dr. J.L. |
|Guerres entre Empires Perse et Byzantin Книга по Требованию Frederic P. M. |
La longue serie de conflits entre le monde mediterraneen et le monde perse forme une des plus longues series d' affrontements regionaux de l' histoire. Aux guerres greco-persanes vont succeder les guerres perso-romanes, qui elles-memes vont se poursuivre apres la separation de l' empire romain et la creation de l' empire byzantin. Aucune partie n' etant capable de dominer l' autre, ces conflits ne prirent fin qu' avec les conquetes musulmanes. Apres la chute de l' empire romain d' Occident une courte accalmie se presente. L' empereur Maurice, en usant de sa diplomatie et en aidant Khosro II a acceder au trone en 591, achete en quelque sorte la paix.
|Iconoclasme Книга по Требованию Frederic P. M. |
L’iconoclasme est oppose a l' iconodulie. Ce courant de pensee rejette l’adoration vouee aux representations du divin, dans les icones en particulier. L’iconoclaste chretien s’appuie sur le troisieme des Dix Commandements : « Tu ne feras pas d’image taillee ». (Exode 20: 4). Dans un second sens, le terme iconoclaste (adjectif ou nom) designe une attitude ou un comportement d' hostilite manifeste aux traditions.