Iconoclasm, Greek for "image-breaking", is the deliberate destruction within a culture of the culture' s own religious icons and other symbols or monuments, usually for religious or political motives. People who engage in or support iconoclasm are called iconoclasts, a term that has come to be applied figuratively to any person who breaks or disdains established dogmata or conventions. Conversely, people who revere or venerate religious images are derisively called "iconolaters". They are normally known as "iconodules", or "iconophiles". The "Second Iconoclasm" was between 814 and 842. The "First Iconoclasm", as it is sometimes called, lasted between about 730 and 787, when a change on the throne reversed the ban. The Byzantine Iconoclasm refers to two periods in the history of the Byzantine Empire when Emperors, backed by imperially-appointed leaders and councils of the Greek Orthodox Church (which at the time was still a part of the Catholic Church) imposed a ban on religious images or icons. Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online.
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|Byzantine Art Parkstone international Bayet C. |
Today, Italy, Northern Africa, and the Near East preserve the vestiges of this sophisticated artistic tradition, with all of its mystical and luminous beauty.
|Byzantine Coinage Книга по Требованию Frederic P. M. |
Byzantine currency, money used in the Eastern Roman Empire after the fall of the West, consisted of mainly two types of coins: the gold solidus and a variety of clearly valued bronze coins.
|Byzantine-Sassanid War of 602–628 Книга по Требованию Frederic P. M. |
The previous war had ended after Emperor Maurice had helped the Sassanian king Khosrau II regain his throne.
|Byzantine Civil War of 1341–1347 Книга по Требованию Frederic P. M. |
|Rus'–Byzantine War (860) Книга по Требованию Lambert M. S. |
It is known from Byzantine sources that the Rus' caught Constantinople unprepared, when the empire was occupied by the ongoing Byzantine-Arab Wars and unable to deal with the Rus' threat. After pillaging the suburbs of the Byzantine capital, the Rus' retreated, although the nature of this withdrawal, and indeed which side was victorious, is subject to debate. This event gave rise to a later Orthodox Christian tradition, which ascribed the deliverance of Constantinople to a miraculous intervention by the Theotokos. Accounts vary regarding the events that took place, with discrepancies between contemporary and later sources, and the exact outcome is unknown. High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! The Rus' -Byzantine War of 860 was the only major military expedition of the Rus' Khaganate recorded in Byzantine and Western European sources.
|History of the Byzantine Empire from Dccxvi to Mlvii. Книга по Требованию Finlay G. |
|Byzantine and Romanesque Architecture, Volume 1 Книга по Требованию Jackson T.G. |
|Raoul (Byzantine Family) Книга по Требованию Lambert M. S. |
The first member of the family appears in 1108, when "Humbert, son of Graoul [Raoul]", a councillor of Emperor Alexios I Komnenos (r. 1081–1118) was part of the Byzantine delegation that signed the Treaty of Devol.
|Byzantine Calendar Книга по Требованию Frederic P. M. |
|Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture Yale University Press Krautheimer R. |
|Early Christian and Byzantine Art Art & Ideas Phaidon Press Dr. J.L. |
|Histoire de l'Empire Byzantin Книга по Требованию Frederic P. M. |
En effet, aucune rupture decisive n’existe dans le lent processus qui transforma progressivement l’Empire romain d’Orient en ce que Hieronymus Wolf appela au XVIe siecle « Empire byzantin ». Ses habitants continuerent a se considerer comme citoyens de l' « Empire romain » malgre son changement de nature : de latin et paien, il devint en effet, au fil des siecles, grec et chretien. L' histoire de l’Empire byzantin couvre une periode definie de facon diverse.
|L'empereur Heraclius Et L'empire Byzantin Au Viie Siecle (French Edition) Книга по Требованию Drapeyron L. |